Germanic peoplesalso called Teutonic Peoplesany of the Indo-European speakers of Germanic languages. The origins of the Germanic peoples are obscure. During the late Bronze Agethey are believed to have inhabited southern Swedenthe Danish peninsula, and northern Germany between the Ems River on the west, the Oder River on the east, and the Harz Mountains on the south. The Vandals, Gepidae, and Goths migrated from southern Sweden in the closing centuries bc and occupied the area of the southern Baltic coast roughly between the Oder on the west and the Vistula River on the east.

At an early date there was also migration toward the south and west at the expense of the Celtic peoples who then inhabited much of western Germany: the Celtic Helvetiifor example, who were confined by the Germanic peoples to the area that is now Switzerland in the 1st century bchad once extended as far east as the Main River.

Their first great clash with Romans came at the end of the 2nd century bcwhen the Cimbri and Teutoni Teutones invaded southern Gaul and northern Italy and were annihilated by Gaius Marius in and Although individual travelers from the time of Pytheas onward had visited Teutonic countries in the north, it was not until the 1st century bc was well advanced that the Romans learned to distinguish precisely between the Germans and the Celts, a distinction that is made with great clarity by Julius Caesar.

It was Caesar who incorporated within the frontiers of the Roman Empire those Germans who had penetrated west of the Rhine, and it is he who gave the earliest extant description of Germanic culture.

In 9 bc the Romans pushed their frontier eastward from the Rhine to the Elbe, but in ad 9 a revolt of their subject Germans headed by Arminius ended in the withdrawal of the Roman frontier to the Rhine. In this period of occupation and during the numerous wars fought between Rome and the Germans in the 1st century adenormous quantities of information about the Germans reached Rome, and, when Tacitus published in ad 98 the book now known as the Germaniahe had reliable sources of information on which to draw.

The book is one of the most valuable ethnographic works in existence; archaeology has in many ways supplemented the information Tacitus gives, but in general it has tended only to confirm his accuracy and to illustrate his insight into his subject. Tacitus relates that according to their ancient songs the Germans were descended from the three sons of Mannus, the son of the god Tuisto, the son of Earth.

Hence they were divided into three groups—the Ingaevones, the Herminones, and the Istaevones—but the basis for this grouping is unknown. Tacitus records a variant form of the genealogy according to which Mannus had a larger number of sons, who were regarded as the ancestors of the Suebi, the Vandals, and others. The meaning of the word Germani and the language to which it belongs are unknown. The principal Germanic peoples were distributed as follows in the time of Tacitus.

The Chatti lived in what is now Hesse. The Frisii inhabited the coastlands between the Rhine and the Ems. The Chauci were at the mouth of the Weser, and south of them lived the Cheruscithe people of Arminius. The Suebiwho have given their name to Schwaben, were a group of peoples inhabiting Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony, and Thuringia; the Semnones, living around the Havel and the Spree rivers, were a Suebic people, as were the Langobardi Lombardswho lived northwest of the Semnones.

Among the seven peoples who worshiped the goddess Nerthus were the Angli Anglescentred on the peninsula of Angeln in eastern Schleswig.

As for the Danubian frontier of the Roman Empire, the Hermunduri extended from the neighbourhood of Regensburg northward through Franconia to Thuringia. The Marcomanniwho had previously lived in the Main valley, migrated during the last decade bc to Bohemia which had hitherto been occupied by a Celtic people called the Boiiwhere their eastern neighbours were the Quadi in Moravia.

On the lower Danube were a people called the Bastarnaewho are usually thought to have been Germans. The GothsGepidaeand Vandals were on the southern Baltic coast.E is for empathy, and your consideration for the feelings of others.

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Recordings from children under 18 are not allowed. Back to Top. Meaning and Origin What does the name Germanico mean? Find out below.The son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia the YoungerGermanicus was born into an influential branch of the patrician gens Claudia. The agnomen Germanicus was added to his full name in 9 BC when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honor of his victories in Germania. In AD 4, he was adopted by his paternal uncle, Tiberiuswho succeeded Augustus as Roman emperor a decade later.

As a result, Germanicus became an official member of the gens Juliaanother prominent family which he was related to on his mother's side. His connection to the Julii was further consolidated through a marriage between himself and Agrippina the Eldera granddaughter of Augustus. He was also the older brother of Claudiusthe father of Caligulaand the maternal grandfather of Nero. During the reign of Augustus, Germanicus enjoyed an accelerated political career as the heir of the emperor's heir, entering the office of quaestor five years before the legal age in AD 7.

He held that office until AD 11, and was elected consul for the first time in AD From there he commanded eight legionsabout one-third of the entire Roman armywhich he led against the Germanic tribes in his campaigns from AD 14 to He avenged the Roman Empire's defeat in the Teutoburg Forest and retrieved two of the three legionary eagles that had been lost during the battle.

In AD 17 he returned to Rome where he received a triumph before leaving to reorganize the provinces of Asia Minorwhereby he incorporated the provinces of Cappadocia and Commagene in AD While in the eastern provinces, he came into conflict with the governor of SyriaGnaeus Calpurnius Piso. His death has been attributed to poison by ancient sources, but that was never proven. As a famous general, he was widely popular and regarded as the ideal Roman long after his death.

Germanicus' praenomen is unknown, but he was probably named Nero Claudius Drusus after his father conventionally called "Drusus"or possibly Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. As a result, Germanicus was adopted out of the Claudii and into the Julii. In accordance with Roman naming conventionshe adopted the name "Julius Caesar" while retaining his agnomenbecoming Germanicus Julius Caesar.

North Germanic languages

His paternal grandmother was Liviawho had divorced his grandfather, Tiberius Claudius Nero around 24 years before Germanicus' birth, and was married to the emperor Augustus. As well as being the great-nephew of Augustus, he was the nephew of the second emperor, Tiberiushis son Gaius would become the third emperor, Caligulawho would be succeeded by Germanicus' brother Claudius, and his grandson would become the fifth emperor, Nero.

Livia persuaded him to choose Tiberius, his stepson from Livia's first marriage to Tiberius Claudius Nero, instead. As part of the succession arrangements, Augustus adopted Tiberius on 26 June AD 4, but first required him to adopt Germanicus, thus placing him next in the line of succession after Tiberius. Only six of his children came of age; Tiberius and the Ignotus died as infants, and Gaius the Elder in his early childhood. Germanicus became a quaestor in AD 7, four years before the legal age of Towards the end of the year, additional reinforcements arrived; three legions from Moesia commanded by Aulus Caecina Severusand two legions with Thracian cavalry and auxiliary troops from Anatolia commanded by Silvanus.

By the time Germanicus had arrived in Pannonia, the rebels had resorted to raiding from the mountain fortresses to which they had withdrawn. Because the Roman legions were not so effective at countering this tactic, Tiberius deployed his auxiliary forces and divided his army into small detachments, allowing them to cover more ground and conduct a war of attrition against the rebels in their strong defensive positions. The Romans also began to drive the rebels out of the countryside, offering amnesty to those tribes that would lay down their arms, and implemented a scorched earth policy in an effort to starve the enemy out.

During this period, Germanicus' detachments were in action against the Mazaeiwhom he defeated. The rebel position in Pannonia collapsed in AD 8 when one of their commanders, Bato the Breuciansurrendered their leader Pinnes to the Romans and laid down his arms in return for amnesty.Pick your preferred language. We speak English and 43 other languages. Check for travel restrictions. Travel might only be permitted for certain purposes, and touristic travel in particular may not be allowed.

Read more. Excellent location — rated 9. Lock in a great price for Germanico Maxi — rated 8. Enter dates to get started. We have stayed here before. A great place to stay in Rome on vacation. Facility's where to a high standard location was perfect shutters allow for peacfull night sleep just perfect for any traveler Em 5 minutos chegou uma pessoa e nos recebeu.

Sin duda volveremos. Located a minute walk from Vatican Museums and 1. The units come with tiled floors and feature a fully equipped kitchen with a microwave, a dining area, a flat-screen TV, and a private bathroom with bidet and a hairdryer. A fridge, a stovetop and toaster are also featured, as well as an electric tea pot and a coffee machine. Castel Sant'Angelo is 1. The nearest airport is Rome Ciampino, 12 miles from Germanico Maxi, and the property offers a paid airport shuttle service.

This is our guests' favorite part of Rome, according to independent reviews. Couples in particular like the location — they rated it 9. Germanico Maxi has been welcoming Booking. We're sorry, but there was an error submitting your comment. Please try again. Good for couples — they rated the facilities 9. Get instant confirmation with FREE cancellation at most properties on our site!

La Historia del irónico y complicado Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico

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Germànico, Giulio Cesare

A damage deposit of EUR is required on arrival.A partir de c. Os primeiros contatos dos germanos com os romanos ocorreram no ano a. Apenas os rebanhos permaneciam como propriedade particular, constituindo a principal riqueza dos guerreiros. Mesmo assim, as suas comunidades ainda eram bem rudimentares e quase todas desconheciam a escrita.

Em caso de ataques e lutas, eram recompensados com o produto das pilhagens, dando origem a uma nobreza possuidora de terras e escravos. O mundo situado mais acima era o de Asgard. A segunda era Gladsheimna que estava a sala do conselho dos deuses. A terceira e mais bela era o Valhalana qual Odin recebia todos os guerreiros mortos heroicamente e compartilhava com eles banquetes e jogos de guerra.

No mundo de Midgard habitavam os homens e os elfos dos quais havia duas classes, os elfos da luz que habitavam no Alfheim e os das trevas no Svarthalfheim. No mundo de Vanaheim viviam os Vanes. Sob o fresno estava oculto o corpo do deus Heimdall que um dia anunciaria o supremo combate entre os Ases e aqueles que lhes disputariam seu poder.

Ver artigo principal: Leges Barbarorum. Oppenheimer, Stephen. Norton, ISBN Wikimedia Commons. Primeira Guerra Mundial. Alemanha Nazista. Alemanha reunificada. Povos indo-europeus. Estudos indo-europeus.The Germanic peoples from Latin : Germani are a category of north European ethnic groups, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman authors. Although the English language possesses the adjective Germanic as distinct from Germanit lacks an equivalent distinct noun.

The terms Germanic peoples and Germani are therefore used by modern English-speaking scholars to avoid confusion with the inhabitants of present-day Germany "Deutschland"including the modern "German" "Deutsche" people and language.

Starting with Julius Caesar —44 BCEseveral Roman Empire authors placed their homeland, Germaniaroughly between the Lower Rhine west and the Vistula Rivers eastand distinguished them from other broad categories of peoples better known to Rome, especially the Celtic Gauls to their southwest, and " Scythian " Sarmatians to their further east and southeast.

The description of peoples as Germanic in late antiquity was mainly restricted to those in the Rhine region, and thus referred to the Franks especially, and sometimes also the Alamanni.

Broader modern definitions of the Germanic peoples include peoples who were not known as Germani or Germanic peoples in their own time, but who are treated as one group of cultures, mostly because of their use of Germanic languages.

The languages of the earliest known Germanic peoples of classical antiquity have left only fragmentary evidence. The first long texts which have survived were written outside Germania in the Gothic language from the region that is today Ukraine. The Eastern Germanic branch of the Germanic language family, once found in what is now Poland and Ukraine, is extinct. Apart from language and geography, proposed connections between the diverse Germanic peoples described by classical and medieval sources, archaeology, and linguistics are the subject of ongoing debate among scholars:.

In the 21st century, genetic studies have begun to look more systematically at questions of ancestry, using both modern and ancient DNA. However, the connection between modern Germanic languages, ethnicity and genetic heritage is thought by many scholars to be unlikely to ever be simple or uncontroversial.

Guy Halsall for example writes: "The danger, barely addressed at best dismissed as a purely 'ideological' objectionis of reducing ethnicity to biology and thus to something close to the nineteenth-century idea of race, at the basis of the 'nation state'. Julius Caesar published the first basic description, possibly based on discussions with Gaulish allies during his campaign in Gaul, of what makes any people or peoples "Germanic", rather than for example Gaulish.

In modern times, attempts to define characteristics which unite all or some of these peoples more objectively, using linguistic or archaeological criteria, have thus led to the possibility of the term "Germanic" being used to apply to more peoples, in other periods and regions.

However, these definitions are still based upon the old definitions, and overlap with them. Such modern definitions have focused attention upon uncertainties and disagreements about the ethnic origins and backgrounds of both early Roman-era Germanic peoples, and late-Roman Germanic peoples. According to all available evidence, the theoretical concept of the Germanic peoples as a large grouping distinct from the Gauls—whose homeland was east of the Rhine, and included areas very far from it—originated with Julius Caesar's published account of his " Gallic Wars ", and specifically those parts concerning his battles near the Rhine.

Importantly for all future conceptions of what Germanic means, Caesar was apparently the first to categorize distant peoples such as the Cimbri and the large group of Suevian peoples as "Germanic". He led a large and armed population, made up of several peoples from east of the Rhine, including significant Suevian contingents.The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages —a sub-family of the Indo-European languages —along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.

The language group is also referred to as the " Nordic languages ", a direct translation of the most common term used among DanishFaroeseIcelandicNorwegianand Swedish scholars and laypeople. The term "North Germanic languages" is used in comparative linguistics[2] whereas the term "Scandinavian languages" appears in studies of the modern standard languages and the dialect continuum of Scandinavia.

Languages belonging to the North Germanic language tree are also commonly spoken in Greenland and, to a lesser extent, by immigrants in North America. Eventually, around the year AD, speakers of the North Germanic branch became distinguishable from the other Germanic language speakers. The early development of this language branch is attested through runic inscriptions. The North Germanic group is characterized by a number of phonological and morphological innovations shared with West Germanic :.

Some have argued that after East Germanic broke off from the group, the remaining Germanic languages, the Northwest Germanic languages, divided into four main dialects: [10] North Germanic, and the three groups conventionally called "West Germanic", namely. Inability of the tree model to explain the existence of some features in the West Germanic languages stimulated the development of an alternative, the so-called wave model. Under this view, the properties that the West Germanic languages have in common separate from the North Germanic languages are not inherited from a "Proto-West-Germanic" language, but rather spread by language contact among the Germanic languages spoken in central Europe, not reaching those spoken in Scandinavia.

Of the modern Scandinavian languages, written Icelandic is closest to this ancient language. In medieval times, speakers of all the Scandinavian languages could understand one another to a significant degree, and it was often referred to as a single language, called the "Danish tongue" until the 13th century by some in Sweden [12] and Iceland.

The Old Gutnish dialect was spoken in Gotland and in various settlements in the East. Yet, byanother classification of the North Germanic language branches had arisen from a syntactic point of view, [5] dividing them into an insular group Icelandic and Faroese and a continental group Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. In inter-Nordic contexts, texts are today often presented in three versions: Finnish, Icelandic, and one of the three languages Danish, Norwegian and Swedish.

In Southern Jutland in southwestern Denmark, German is also spoken by the North Schleswig Germansand German is a recognized minority language in this region. German is the primary language among the Danish minority of Southern Schleswigand likewise, Danish is the primary language of the North Schleswig Germans. Both minority groups are highly bilingual. Traditionally, Danish and German were the two official languages of Denmark—Norway ; laws and other official instruments for use in Denmark and Norway were written in Danish, and local administrators spoke Danish or Norwegian.

German was the administrative language of Holstein and the Duchy of Schleswig. Sami languages form an unrelated group that has coexisted with the North Germanic language group in Scandinavia since prehistory. In historical linguistics, the North Germanic family tree is divided into two main branches, West Scandinavian languages NorwegianFaroese and Icelandic and East Scandinavian languages Danish and Swedishalong with various dialects and varieties. The two branches are derived from the western and eastern dialect groups of Old Norse respectively.

There was also an Old Gutnish branch spoken on the island of Gotland. The continental Scandinavian languages Swedish, Norwegian and Danish were heavily influenced by Middle Low German during the period of Hanseatic expansion.

Another way of classifying the languages — focusing on mutual intelligibility rather than the tree-of-life model — posits Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish as Continental Scandinavianand Faroese and Icelandic as Insular Scandinavian. However, Danish has developed a greater distance between the spoken and written versions of the language, so the differences between spoken Norwegian and spoken Danish are somewhat more significant than the difference between their respective written forms.


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